Is there anything uploaded into your media dir? And does you db point to any media files, in the settings table and the themes table?
While I’m not able to repro the error you got, I can kind of get the same behavior by uploading an intentionally-broken .jpg file (just take a non-jpg and rename it to .jpg) and then setting it as
site_logo. If I do so, then the whole site still works except for loading the Settings > General page, and trying to go there gives me the 500 error with this in the logs
Intervention\Image\Exception\NotReadableException: Unsupported image type application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet. GD driver is only able to decode JPG, PNG, GIF, BMP or WebP files.